Do “Monkey-Typewriter” Arguments Work?

There is a famous analogy that is used in discussion of highly improbable events – that of monkeys sitting at a typewriter, banging away at the keys. It is said in this parable that, given enough time, the monkey will type out Hamlet, or a Shakespeaean sonnet, or the complete works of Shakespeare, or someContinue reading “Do “Monkey-Typewriter” Arguments Work?”

Proof by Infinite Descent

We have previously discussed proof by contradiction [1]. Here, we will be describing what can be viewed as a specialized version of this method. This method, however, is sufficiently specialized that is it worth discussing separately. As a mathematician, I find this idea absolutely brilliant. Even though it isn’t terribly difficult to explain, only anContinue reading “Proof by Infinite Descent”

Proof by Contrapositive

Sometimes when you are trying to solve a problem, you realize you really don’t have a lot of information to start with. One piece of good advice in problem-solving is to try to work backwards. That is, sometimes if you know what you want your solution to look like, you can backtrack to learn somethingContinue reading “Proof by Contrapositive”

Proof by Contradiction

The proof method that we will talk about here is quite different than many others. In his famous book A Mathematician’s Apology, the great mathematician G.H. Hardy made an analogy between this proof style, which we call a proof by contradiction, to a gambit in chess. So before I try to analyze what this proofContinue reading “Proof by Contradiction”

Proof by Induction

The word induction refers to any thought pattern which moves from specific examples to more general principles. The best known example of induction is probably the scientific method – we collect data by repeating the same specific experiments multiple times, find regularities and make guesses about a potential overarching framework into which the data mightContinue reading “Proof by Induction”

How Would We Know COVID-19 is in Decline?

In light of the current COVID-19 pandemic, I have written an article entitled How Does Disease Spread? in which I discuss how mathematicians attempt to understand the way that a virus is spreading in the population. In said article, my primary focus is building up the concepts and thought processes that are needed to understandContinue reading “How Would We Know COVID-19 is in Decline?”

How Does Disease Spread?

These are difficult times. Because of the spread of the COVID-19 virus, we are all taking very drastic measures to ‘flatten the curve’ by socially distancing, increasing our awareness of hygiene, and many other measures. These, of course, should be done, because lives will be saved. But how, exactly, do we know this? We don’tContinue reading “How Does Disease Spread?”

Types of Proofs in Math

Previously, I have talked about logic and some of the most important rules of logic. These are quite important and useful in doing mathematics. However, it is necessary to go further, because logic is not specific enough. Mathematics analyzes patterns that involve concepts like shape, number, repetition, and symmetry. Pure logic does not adequately handleContinue reading “Types of Proofs in Math”

The Foundation of Logic

There are a lot of different ways to approach understanding what mathematics truly is in modern times. And these different approaches are fundamentally different. Does one come from the angle of discussing the beauty of patterns? Or perhaps of the power of the human mind to move from specific examples to general conclusions (similar toContinue reading “The Foundation of Logic”

Pythagorean Triples? (Solution #1, Part 2)

In Part 1, we have begun discussing primitive Pythagorean triples, and thought a little bit about them. Now, we want to try to characterize all primitive triples. That is now our goal. Limiting The Possibilities Suppose we are given a primitive triple (a,b,c). Recall that this means that the three positive whole numbers a, b,Continue reading “Pythagorean Triples? (Solution #1, Part 2)”