The Kalam Cosmological Argument: A Brief Overview

In a previous post, I have discussed the intuition behind cosmological arguments and gave several examples. One of these examples was the Kalam cosmological argument. By way of overview, a cosmological argument is, broadly speaking, one that reasons from facts about the universe we observe and metaphysical principles to argue that God, or at leastContinue reading “The Kalam Cosmological Argument: A Brief Overview”

What are Cosmological Arguments?

Cosmological arguments are probably the most discussed and most intriguing area of natural theology. While there are a great variety of areas of philosophy that point towards God’s existence – we find that, for whatever reason, the realm of cosmological arguments seems to bring the most interest from both defenders and opponents of the arguments.Continue reading “What are Cosmological Arguments?”

Critical Thinking Toolkit: Straw Man Fallacy

Imagine the following scenario. A man walks up to an 80 year old with walking on his cane in the street, knocks him out with a single punch, then claims to be the best boxer who has ever lived. Sound silly? It should. This is an embodiment of what is known as the straw manContinue reading “Critical Thinking Toolkit: Straw Man Fallacy”

Critical Thinking Toolkit: Inference to the Best Explanation

I’ve talked about deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning before. Both of these are important mechanisms we use for arriving at conclusions. The first makes use of the rules of logic – which we can essentially view as limiting ourselves to the definitions of words like true and false and not allowing ourselves any other resources.Continue reading “Critical Thinking Toolkit: Inference to the Best Explanation”

Critical Thinking Toolkit: The Ad Hominem Fallacy

This one really should go without saying… and yet we need to say it anyways. So often, public discourse gets bogged down in personal insults of one variety or another. Whether attacks on a person’s morality, integrity, honesty, educational background, or any other aspect of life, our culture – especially the so-called “cancel culture” –Continue reading “Critical Thinking Toolkit: The Ad Hominem Fallacy”

Critical Thinking Toolkit: Clarifying Definitions

This is possibly the most important post I’ve written in my “Critical Thinking Toolkit” series so far. Ensuring we are clear on our definitions is so, so important. Every conversation we can ever have relies on definitions of certain important words, and so this tool always matters. Furthermore, when I look around in the worldContinue reading “Critical Thinking Toolkit: Clarifying Definitions”

Critical Thinking Toolkit: The Fallacy of Arguing from Ignorance

When debating important topics, whether with your friends, online with strangers, or in a public debate with spectators, there is always a high emphasis placed on proving your case. People ask why you believe what you do, ask you to show your evidence, ask you to give them your arguments. There is nothing wrong withContinue reading “Critical Thinking Toolkit: The Fallacy of Arguing from Ignorance”

Critical Thinking Toolkit: Rebuttal versus Refutation

When you disagree with someone, there are a variety of ways to approach that disagreement. The most obvious kind of approach would be to ask someone why they disagree with you and what evidence they have that underlies the disagreement. After all, in order to have a productive conversation you need to be talking aboutContinue reading “Critical Thinking Toolkit: Rebuttal versus Refutation”

Critical Thinking Toolkit: A Priori Assumptions

This is one of the most important – perhaps the most important – of the many tools in the “critical thinking toolkit.” I don’t say this because I like this topic most among the topics I want to write about – although I do enjoy this topic a lot. The main reason I think thisContinue reading “Critical Thinking Toolkit: A Priori Assumptions”

Critical Thinking Toolkit: Ockham’s Razor

When we are in debates, very often there is more than one way to explain something. When we are presented with more than one way of explaining some aspect of reality – be it scientific, historical, religious, or anything else – these situations arise. When they do, we want to be able to differentiate betweenContinue reading “Critical Thinking Toolkit: Ockham’s Razor”